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Biological Warfare 
In Native American History

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Marks of Mortality delves into the impact of smallpox on Native Americans post-European contact. It explores the internal and external symptoms of smallpox and investigates what evidence exists regarding the use of smallpox as a biological weapon against Native Americans in the 16th-17th centuries.

A brief introduction to smallpox 

Smallpox as Warfare

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Disclaimer: Marks of Mortality uses the wording "Native American" and/or "indigenous" to reference the effects of smallpox across an extremely broad spectrum of people. Marks of Mortality acknowledges the impact and influence of individual tribes and names as many as possible. The scope of this project does not cover every tribe, but seeks to draw attention to the treachery experienced by all Native People as a direct result of colonial contact, abuse by a foreign power, loss of life, culture, power, human rights and the continued consequences of these things felt in the present. 

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