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Biological Warfare

Bernhard Knollenberg, "General Amherst and Germ Warfare," The Mississippi Valley Historical 

Review 41, no. 3 (1954): 492-493. Citing the Papers of Col. Henry Bouquet, published in 

the 1940s and housed at the British Library.


Cameron, Catherine M., et al., eds. Beyond Germs: Native Depopulation in North America. 

University of Arizona Press, 2015.


 Fenn, Elizabeth A. "Biological Warfare in Eighteenth-Century North America: Beyond Jeffery 

Amherst," The Journal of American History 86, no. 4 (Mar., 2000): 1552-1580. Analysis 

based off of documentation in The Papers of Colonel Henry Bouquet. 


Kelton, Paul. Epidemics and Enslavement: Biological Catastrophe in the Native Southeast, 

1492-1715. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2007.


Pierpoint, Mary "Bioterrorism Not New to Native Americans," Indian Country Today (Oneida, 

N.Y.), Oneida, N.Y: Indian Country Today, 2001.



Bauer, Brooke “A lecture featuring her monograph Becoming Catawba: Catawba Indian Women and Nation Building, 1540-1840.” President James K Polk State Historic Site, July 29, 

2023, Pineville, NC.


 Beller, P.C. "Shelter Island Surprise Is Likely an Indian Grave," New York Times, October 10, 2003.


Hayes, Kathleen “Catawba History 101,” President James K. Polk State Historic Site, April 29, 2023, Pineville, NC.


Mooney, James .Myths of the Cherokee, Washington: Cornell University, 1902, Introduction;


Ramenofsky, Ann F. and Patricia Galloway, “Disease and the Soto Entrada,” The Hernando de Soto Expedition History, Historiography and ‘Discovery’ in the Southeast Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1997, 259-274;


Rockwood Hudson, Joyce Looking for De Soto A Search Through the South for the Spaniard’s Trail, Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1993, xi-xv.


Shelter Island Reporter. "Uncovering a Centuries-Old Cemetery: Sylvester Manor Continues Excavating the Past." Shelter Island Reporter, September 1, 2020. 


W.G.J. Putschar, "Osteomyelitis including Fungal” Bones and Joints, ed. LV. Ackerman, H. J. Spjut, M. R. Abell (Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1976), 39-60. 


 Williams, John A. "Evidence of Hydatid Disease in a Plains Woodland Burial," Plains Anthropologist 30, no. 107 (1985): 25-28.


Rosie R. Crawford et. al., “Guidance for 

identification of bony lesions due to smallpox,” International Journal of Paleopathology 44 (2024): 65-77.

Zimmerman, M.R. and M. A. Kelley, Atlas of Human Paleopathology 

(New York: Praeger, 1982)

Bassett, Deborah, Ursula Tsosie, and Sweetwater Nannauck. "Our Culture Is Medicine: Perspectives of Native Healers on Posttrauma Recovery Among American Indian and Alaska Native Patients." The Permanente Journal, no. 1 (2012): 16, 19-27.


Additional Sources

Primary Sources

Bouquet, Henry, 1719-1765. The Papers of Col. Henry Bouquet. Harrisburg :Department of Public Instruction, Pennsylvania Historical Commission.

Levy, Trent and Company: Account against the Crown, Aug. 13, 1763,. “Original Invoice of items purchased from a smallpox hospital.” Papers of Colonel Henry Bouquet, London, British Library Board Add MS 21654 folio 168.

Morris, Frederick W. "The Sarracenia Purpurea, A Remedy for Small-Pox." Chicago Medical Examiner (1860-1867), July 1862, 3, no. 7: 438.

McWilliam. "The Indian Remedy for Small-Pox." The Retrospect of Practical Medicine and Surgery, no. 45 (1862): 38.

Tobey Rocket, Wampanoag/Pequot, Indigenous Consultant

"Native Land." Native Land Digital.

"Where Am I?" Whose Land.


British Library. London, United Kingdom

Library of Congress. Washington D.C.

National Archives. Washington D.C.

Special Thanks

Chad T. Allen, Archives and Research Specialist.

Simon Zytka, Audio Visual Tech. 

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